September 20, 2022, Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti
School of Medicine researchers Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti write for The Conversation about how the updated booster shots train the immune system and how protective they might be against COVID-19.
September 16, 2022, Jeff Stensland
The University of South Carolina is launching a new $10 million program to spur high-impact interdisciplinary research projects. The Research Institutes Funding Program aims to establish five new start-up research institutes, with each receiving $500,000 in annual funding for up to four years.
September 15, 2022, Jeff Stensland
The University of South Carolina is partnering with Verizon to launch the new Innovation Experience Hub, a showcase for applying Verizon 5G Ultra-Wideband Internet technology to cutting-edge discoveries in health care, manufacturing and civil infrastructure.
September 09, 2022, Megan Sexton
The University of South Carolina has the top first-year student experience of any public college in the country and the best international business program, according to U.S. News & World Report’s annual undergraduate rankings.
September 08, 2022, Jeff Stensland
University of South Carolina faculty members in the liberal arts, humanities and social sciences can now apply for a new grants program that will provide up to $25,000 for scholarship and creative work in the arts.
September 01, 2022, Laura Erskine
On Aug. 1, Jack Sadle became the first University of South Carolina student to graduate with a Bachelor of Science in Cyber Intelligence — a field where issues of cyber and national security meet.
August 25, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
“The History of American College Football: Institutional Policy, Culture, and Reform,” edited by UofSC faculty members Christian Anderson and Amber Falluca, examines the role of the popular American sport on college campuses from its 19th century roots to its contemporary cultural dominance.
Many drugs have mirror image chemical structures - while one may be helpful, the other may be harmful
August 16, 2022, Sajish Mathew
Many drugs have the same atoms and bonds but are arranged differently in space. These drugs are called chiral compounds — meaning they exist as two mirror images. Usually these mirror-image versions have similar properties because they share the same elements and bonds. Pharmacy professor Sajish Mathew writes for The Conversation on how these compounds are arranged in space can drastically change the effects they have in the body.
Old age isn't a modern phenomenon - many people lived long enough to grow old in the olden days, too
August 10, 2022, Sharon DeWitte
There is a common misperception that long life spans in humans are very recent, and that no one in the past lived much beyond their 30s before now. This is not true. There is physical evidence that plenty of people in the past lived long lives — just as long as some people do today. Anthropology professor Sharon DeWitte writes for The Conversation on the evidence that proves old age isn't a modern phenomenon.
August 10, 2022, Chris Horn
School of Medicine scientist Jason Kubinak studies beneficial interaction between human gut and environmental microbes, exploring basic questions about the nature of harmful viruses and bacteria and how immune response has evolved to control them.
August 03, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
Assistant professor of nursing Michael Wirth is a busy man these days, with his hands on multiple projects. The overarching goal? Healthier diets and lifestyles for shift workers in high-stress occupations like nursing and law enforcement and better sleep for everyone.
August 02, 2022, Chris Horn
The complex data sets and computations inherent in Jiajia Zhang’s work as a biostatistician are mind boggling to most people. But the practical applications of Zhang’s research are readily apparent, touching on cancer survival, HIV treatment and prevention and COVID-19 management.
Taking certain opioids while on commonly prescribed antidepressants may increase the risk of overdose
August 01, 2022, Ismaeel Yunusa
While doctors prescribe the opioid oxycodone to treat moderate to severe pain after surgeries and injuries, these have also become a common drug of abuse resulting in over 70% of U.S. drug overdose deaths. Pharmacy professor Ismaeel Yunusa writes for The Conversation on how taking oxycodone at the same time as certain antidepressants can increase the risk of opioid overdose.
July 29, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
Associate professor of social work Kristen Seay and her collaborators take on adverse childhood experiences among foster children.
July 26, 2022, Allen Wallace
For the fourth consecutive year, the University of South Carolina is among the top 10 in the country in hospitality and tourism management and No. 18 worldwide, according to the ShanghaiRanking’s 2022 Global Ranking of Academic Subjects.
July 26, 2022, Page Ivey
In an era when facts are discounted while highly improbable information is accepted as gospel, Taylor Wen is looking at how our emotions affect the way we process communication. Her work looks particularly at health and risk communication, as well as general advertising.
July 21, 2022, Megan Sexton
Katelyn Stauffer, an assistant professor of political science, studies how gender shapes American political behavior and what it means to have women in positions of power. It’s a topic of particular interest in today’s political climate. And it’s a field she came to almost by accident.
July 18, 2022, Chris Horn
It’s one thing to be late for a haircut because of a crossing train. But when Yu Qian spotted an ambulance with lights flashing and siren blaring — but blocked by a train — he put his civil engineering expertise to work.
July 14, 2022, Page Ivey
Law professor Emily Suski’s research focuses on children and their health and well-being. She takes a fresh look at Title IX protections for children in the K-12 school environment as well as creating a legal clinic to help when children’s health is put at risk by social factors.
July 12, 2022
Since establishing an Artificial Intelligence Institute in 2019, the university has seen growing interest in the subject across campus. There are now dozens of researchers throughout the university exploring how artificial intelligence and machine learning can be used to advance fields from health care to manufacturing.
July 12, 2022, Megan Sexton
As a psychology professor and co-director of the university’s McCausland Center for Brain Imaging, Chris Rorden has made his mark with the open-source software he has developed to assist in brain visualization, image processing and statistics.
July 07, 2022, Chris Horn
It’s the unspoken fear of new parents — having a child born with a disfiguring birthmark that can mean a lifetime of medical procedures and emotional challenges. Wenbin Tan, a professor of cell biology and anatomy at the School of Medicine Columbia, has devoted much of his research to a congenital neurovascular malformation called Port Wine Stain.
June 28, 2022, Page Ivey
Khalid Ballouli knows first-hand what life is like for an aspiring professional ballplayer. It was his personal experience, which included six years as a pitcher in the minor leagues after playing for the Southeastern Conference’s Texas A&M University, that led him to his 10-year research project interviewing young players and their families about their experiences in travel baseball.
June 28, 2022, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
As COVID-19 vaccines continue to be effective in preventing hospitalizations and deaths, many people have found themselves unsure whether to wait on new, updated formulations of the COVID-19 vaccines or to mix and match combinations of the original vaccine strains. School of Medicine Columbia professors Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti write for The Conversation on whether you should get a COVID-19 booster now or wait until fall.
June 28, 2022, Kyndel Lee
UofSC alumna Taylor Wilson is playing a major role in advancing South Carolina's efforts in advocacy for support of the Alzheimer's cause at both the state and federal levels.
June 23, 2022, Page Ivey
Exercise science researcher and professor Sara Wilcox has been working for 20 years to improve the health of South Carolina residents.
June 22, 2022, Alyssa Collins
In an interview for The Conversation, Alyssa Collins, assistant professor of English Language and Literature, explains how science fiction author Octavia Butler’s boundless curiosity inspired her work and how Butler’s experiences as a Black woman drew her to “humans who must deal with the edges or ends of humanity.”
June 20, 2022, Carol J.G. Ward
The University of South Carolina’s Center for Civil Rights History and Research will receive $500,000 in federal funding to further its mission to preserve civil rights history and tell critical stories of the movement. The African American Civil Rights grant administered by the National Park Service will be used to continue rehabilitation and preservation of the historic Booker T. Washington Auditorium Building.
June 16, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
Associate professor of integrated information technology Jorge Chrichigno builds a virtual “playground” for IT education.
June 14, 2022, Page Ivey
Brenden Chavis, an informatics Ph.D. student in the College of Engineering and Computing, is able to pay for his own education thanks to programs funded by Fluor Corp.
June 14, 2022, Chris Horn
Bacteriophages are viruses that attack specific bacteria and were discovered a century ago. Phage cocktails, which combine several types of phages, could be administered on a broader scale and diminish the need for antibiotics.
June 09, 2022, Chris Horn
The space around Allen Stokes' desk looks much the same as it did a half century ago when he began working for the South Caroliniana Library. He’s still surrounded by boxes of correspondence, photos, memorabilia and other materials related to the history and culture of the state.
June 08, 2022, Alexis Watts
The Anne Frank Center located at the University of South Carolina is now home to 100 letters and cards written by Otto Frank, the father of Holocaust victim and world-renowned diarist Anne Frank. The donation comes as the world honors her life and legacy on the 75th anniversary of the publication of her diary and her birthday on June 12.
June 07, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
Anne Frank’s father, Otto Frank, corresponded with thousands of young people as he worked to promote his daughter’s legacy. His decades-long correspondence with author Cara Wilson-Granat is now the foundation of the university’s new Anne Frank Center Archive.
June 06, 2022, Megan Sexton
Pooyan Jamshidi first became interested in robotics when he was about 10 years old, his imagination captured by the single book about the topic available in the small library in his elementary school in Iran. He now is an assistant professor of computer science and engineering at UofSC and a visiting researcher at Google.
June 01, 2022, Chris Horn
For the past 10 years, Fabio Matta, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering, has been engineering earthen building blocks made from local soil. Up close, the blocks don’t look like anything special, but their simplicity is the appeal — the blocks don’t require firing in energy-intensive kiln furnaces and can stand up to the worst Mother Nature can throw at them.
May 24, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
Ed Madden is well known on the University of South Carolina campus as the director of the Women’s and Gender Studies program and as a dynamic classroom instructor. He is just as well-known as a creative writer and arts advocate in Columbia, South Carolina, where he is wrapping up his term as the capital city’s inaugural poet laureate.
May 17, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
As an evolutionary psychologist, University of South Carolina Salkehatchie assistant professor Justin Mogilski probes fundamental questions about how our brains work. As a researcher focused on non-monogamous relationships, he wants to improve outcomes for a population that has traditionally been overlooked.
May 16, 2022, Kyndel Lee
UofSC Beaufort student shares her story as a sex trafficking survivor as part of her healing process and to raise awareness. The human services major hopes to become a counselor to help other survivors.
May 16, 2022, Sabrina Habib
Sharing ideas can get messy when colleagues don't understand or support novel concepts - or if they shut them down altogether. Visual communications professor Sabrina Habib writes for The Conversation on concrete ways to facilitate idea generation, both individually and in groups.
May 13, 2022, Chris Horn
In an ideal world, perhaps everyone would drive electric cars or use public transportation powered by renewable energy — and that world would have cleaner air and far less greenhouse gas emissions. But in the real world many consumers remain skeptical of plug-in electric and hybrid cars or shy away from those vehicle’s higher price tags. Government-sponsored incentives have helped to some degree, but research by two faculty members in the Moore School of Business reveals those incentives sometimes come with unintended consequences.
May 10, 2022, Carol J.G. Ward
Imagine traveling in time to an era when you can observe the Carolina Parakeet, Ivory-billed Woodpecker and Passenger Pigeon — species that have vanished. A visit to the exhibit "Catesby in the Carolinas" might be the next best thing.
Countries with lower-than-expected vaccination rates show unusually negative attitudes to vaccines on Twitter
May 10, 2022, Jungmi Jun
With the tone of social media conversations regarding the COVID-19 vaccine are varying around the world, this research team wanted to understand if these tones matched differing country-level vaccination rates. Journalism and mass communications professor Jungmi Jun writes for The Conversation on the influence emotions toward vaccines may have on whether a person decides to get a COVID-19 vaccination or not.
May 06, 2022, Kyndel Lee
Khadija Kakar knows what it's like to grow up in poverty. But she beat the odds and is working to ensure other women in her home country get the same opportunities for education.
May 02, 2022, Chris Horn
In 14 years at the University of South Carolina, Michael Beets has notched an enviable record of research productivity — more than 200 publications, a Google Scholar h-index of 50 with nearly 12,000 citations while serving as principal investigator on seven large NIH grants and associate director of an NIH-sponsored Center of Biomedical Research Excellence.
April 29, 2022, Amanda Hernandez
The Atlantic hurricane season officially begins June 1. Top researchers at the University of South Carolina are available to discuss multiple aspects of the 2022 hurricane season, including forecasting, disaster planning and historical perspectives.
April 27, 2022, Page Ivey
Spanish and comparative literature professor Rebecca Janzen has checked all the North America boxes: She is from Canada, works in the U.S. and her field of study is Mexican literature and culture. And, nine years removed from her Ph.D., she has published four books that all look at some aspect of Mexican culture or government and certain populations inside the country.
April 25, 2022, Craig Brandhorst
A lot happens over the course of an academic year, and there’s absolutely no way to highlight everything. So, no, don’t think of this as a Best Of list. This is merely a smattering of the achievements and memorable moments that defined 2021-22, a small taste of the year that was. Trust us, there’s plenty more where this came from — and plenty more to come.
April 25, 2022, Abe Danaher
Since the early 1990s, Twiss has been at the forefront of the molecular neurobiology field. His excellence across research, teaching and mentorship has now led to him being named the 2022 SEC Faculty Achievement Award recipient for the University of South Carolina.
April 21, 2022, Communications and Marketing
Geography major Claire Windsor has turned a passion for creating a sustainable world into action throughout her four-year career at South Carolina. The Travelers Rest, South Carolina, native and Honors College student received the university's top leadership award, the 2022 Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award.
April 19, 2022, Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti
As mRNA vaccines used in the U.S. against COVID-19 have been successful at preventing hospitalization and death, the vaccines have failed to provide long-term protective immunity to prevent breakthrough infections. School of Medicine Columbia professors Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti write for The Conversation on the COVID-19 booster and retooling existing vaccines to increase the duration of protection.
April 12, 2022, Megan Sexton
Alumna Kelly Adams, managing director of state government and regulatory affairs for the energy infrastructure company Williams, was instrumental in her employer’s gift of $1.5 million to the university's Center for Civil Rights History and Research.
April 06, 2022, Chris Horn
Ninety-seven percent of climate scientists agree that Earth’s rising temperatures and related phenomena — more frequent and severe drought, flooding and wildfires — are a result of human-caused climate change. Scientists who earned their Ph.D.s from South Carolina are applying their expertise to help corporations adopt more eco-friendly approaches to doing business and developing more equitable policies for coastal land use.
April 05, 2022, Carol J.G. Ward
UofSC junior combines curiosity about the 1970s, a love of history and an interest in culture and media into an undergraduate research project to assist history professor Lauren Sklaroff with research for a book proposal on 1970s popular culture.
April 05, 2022, Dan Cook
When you think of change management, you might think of the Harvard Business Review or McKinsey’s global consultants. You probably don’t think about musicians. But in David Cutler’s new book, the distinguished professor of entrepreneurship and innovation in the School of Music takes lessons that began in the arts and translates them into a broad-based way of thinking about change in any other facet of life.
March 28, 2022, Abbey Smith
For two University of South Carolina students, earning a Goldwater Scholarship has turned childhood dreams into reality. Kirsten Fisher and Amanda Manea also have the honor of marking 30 years of Goldwater Scholars at UofSC.
March 22, 2022, Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti
The COVID-19 omicron variant has been the predominant source of rising infections around the world. BA.2 is the latest subvariant of omicron and is spreading quickly in many countries. School of Medicine Columbia professors, Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti, write for The Conversation on this new strain, if there will be another surge in the U.S. and how to protect yourself.
March 22, 2022, Jabari Evans
Hip-hop artist and School of Journalism and Mass Communications professor, Jabari Evans, interviews with The Conversation. He answers questions on his career, how he got to where he is today, what he enjoys most about what he studies, his motivations and what is next for his research.
March 17, 2022, Megan Sexton
As a Ph.D. student in the College of Nursing, Chigozie Nkwonta studied cervical cancer prevention, with the goal to increase HPV vaccinations and cervical cancer screenings in her home country of Nigeria.
March 09, 2022, Chris Horn
Global warming is increasing the saltiness and temperature of the oceans, which adversely affect coral reefs and could worsen other aspects of marine ecosystems. Two scientists who earned their Ph.D.s from the University of South Carolina are gathering data on marine problems linked to climate change.
March 04, 2022, Timothy Mousseau
Timothy Mousseau, biological sciences professor, writes for The Conversation on the impacts and possible outcomes of the war in Ukraine on the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site.
February 28, 2022, Chris Horn
A new water sampling aerial drone developed by University of South Carolina professors has six motors, four pumps, two batteries, one six-foot-long collection hose and a zero-carbon footprint. But this proof-of-concept machine could become even more impressive if the team is able to secure NSF funding for a new level of capability.
How long does protective immunity against COVID-19 last after infection or vaccination? Two immunologists explain
February 25, 2022, Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti
Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti, professors of pathology, microbiology and immunology, write for The Conversation on Covid-19 protective immunity via vaccination and infection.
February 01, 2022, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
The characteristics of the COVID-19 omicron variant has many people wondering if it could act as a vaccine of sorts, inoculating enough people to effectively bring about herd immunity. School of Medicine Columbia professors Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti write for The Conversation about immune response to COVID-19.
January 27, 2022, Allen Wallace
Many things have changed since the annual Global Ranking of Sport Science Schools and Departments debuted in 2016, but one constant remains: the University of South Carolina is No. 1 in the nation.
January 26, 2022, Office of Communications and Public Affairs; Photos by Kim Truett
Four University of South Carolina researchers have been elected as fellows in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a distinguished group of scientists, engineers and innovators.
December 14, 2021, Carol J.G. Ward
Third Folio of Shakespeare’s plays printed in 1664 has a permanent home at University of South Carolina Libraries. The book, a gift from Chicago attorney Jeffery Leving, along with the university’s copies of the Second and Fourth folios, will provide a rare opportunity for students, faculty and other researchers.
December 09, 2021, Lorne J. Hofseth
Many of the colors that make up candy canes, sugar cookies and even cranberry sauce and roast ham are synthetic. Pharmacy professor, Lorne J. Hofseth, writes for The Conversation that there is evidence that these ultra-processed foods may trigger early-onset colorectal cancer.
December 09, 2021, Oluwafemi Adeago and Xiaoming Li
Barriers such as stigma, homophobia, poverty, access, distrust of the medical system and misinformation make Southern Black gay men less likely to use antiretroviral treatments to prevent HIV infection use, Oluwafemi Adeago and Xiaoming Li, Arnold School of Public Health, write for The Conversation.
December 06, 2021, Savannah Bennett
Alumna Emma DeLoughry’s Macroplastics in South Carolina Waters: Connecting the Midlands to the Coast documentary is set to premiere on SC ETV Dec. 15.
December 02, 2021, Chris Horn
When Robert McKeever and a colleague launched a smartphone usage study in 2017, they timed it to coincide with an update of Apple’s iOS that for the first time tracked weekly screen time.
November 23, 2021, Madeline Steiner
A bizarre cast of characters involved in the exotic animal trade returns in ‘Tiger King 2.’ Madeline Steiner, a post-doctoral fellow of history, examines parallels between larger-than-life Joe Exotic and 19th-century circuses and showmen for The Conversation.
November 18, 2021, Ismaeel Yunusa
Changes in insulin prescription rates because of the pandemic underscore the challenges that people with diabetes face in accessing care, Ismaeel Yunusa assistant professor of clinical pharmacy and outcomes sciences, writes for The Conversation. The effects of the pandemic on diabetes go beyond insulin prescriptions. As COVID-19 overwhelmed health care systems, people with chronic conditions like diabetes have experienced significant disruptions in routine and emergency medical care.
November 17, 2021, Jabari Evans
A lot could be gained by not overlooking the creativity and ingenuity of teens and young adults like drill music vanguard Chief Keef. Journalism and mass communications professor Jabari Evans writes for The Conversation that drill subculture arose out the ways Chicago's Black youth navigate violence and poverty by innovating within social media.
November 16, 2021, Megan Sexton
As the country marks Rural Health Day this week, the University of South Carolina works — through its School of Medicine, College of Nursing, Arnold School of Public Health and other areas — to understand and improve the delivery of health care in rural and underserved communities.
November 15, 2021, Page Ivey
New law professor Etienne Toussaint came to the legal profession after starting out as an engineer, building bridges. After working internationally with Engineers Without Borders, he saw how a legal career would let him help lift those living in extreme poverty in the U.S. and around the world.
November 11, 2021, Page Ivey
For the past year, public health researchers at the University of South Carolina and other colleges across the state have worked to provide information about COVID-19’s impact in communities and what people are thinking about the disease, testing and vaccinations.
November 02, 2021, Page Ivey
University of South Carolina alumna Ebony Toussaint joined the university as a faculty member this fall, working with the Rural and Minority Health Research Center in the Arnold School of Public Health. One of her first research projects will be a study of how evictions impact mental health, on which she will work with her husband, Etienne Toussaint, who is a new law professor.
October 25, 2021, Megan Sexton
Jabari Evans is an assistant professor of race and media in the School of Journalism and Mass Communications. He earned his doctorate in media, technology and society from Northwestern University after a 10-year career as a hip-hop artist.
October 22, 2021, Nancy Buchan and Orgul Ozturk
A 2020 online study found that people in the United States who were more directly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic were 9 percent more likely to donate to charity than others, and they donated 9.2% more money. The study replicated in Italy found similar results, Moore School professors Nancy Buchan and Orgul Ozturk write in The Conversation with co-author Gianluca Grimalda, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
October 21, 2021, Page Ivey
Civic engagement is a two-way street, and that’s particularly true in education. Professor Tia Stevens Andersen's mentorship class that pairs criminal justice students with at-risk high school students is paving the way to better outcomes for everyone involved.
October 18, 2021, Craig Brandhorst
Law professor Thomas Crocker specializes in constitutional law, criminal procedure, free speech and democracy, national security and the Constitution. His new book, "Overcoming Necessity: Emergency, Constraint, and the Meanings of American Constitutionalism" (Yale University Press) is an analysis of how the concept of necessity, in conflict with constitutional commitments, creates dynamic challenges to constitutional governance, especially during times of emergency.
October 14, 2021, Page Ivey
Political satire — particularly TV shows in that genre — may be a gateway to civic engagement. Satire may also do more to foster engagement than traditional late-night talk shows, says assistant professor of journalism and self-described “news junkie” Jacob Long.
As American independence rang, a sweeping lockdown and mass inoculations fought off a smallpox outbreak
October 11, 2021, Woody Holton
History professor Woody Holton writes for The Conversation about how Americans of the founding era stayed healthy enough to fight the Revolutionary War with lockdowns and mass inoculations to combat a viciously contagious disease.
September 30, 2021, Page Ivey
During the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers in the Darla Moore School of Business began to apply context to the exponential growth in reported cases. Wolfgang Messner and Sarah Payson’s findings could help communities across the U.S. confront future pandemics.
September 28, 2021, Rose Cisneros and Bryan Gentry
Warming oceans are driving some marine populations out of their habitats and into peril, according to new research by University of South Carolina professor Erin Meyer-Gutbrod. The temperature change is affecting creatures large and small, from the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale to more common fish whose habitats are losing oxygen.
September 21, 2021, Christopher Moore
About 3,600 years ago, a giant space rock exploded in a massive fireball in the atmosphere above an ancient Middle Eastern city. The explosion destroyed the city, killing its 8,000 inhabitants and setting off a massive shockwave that ripped through the city and surrounding areas. University of South Carolina archaeologist Christopher Moore and his colleagues explain for The Conversation how they know how this actually happened near the Dead Sea in Jordan thousands of years ago.
September 16, 2021, Page Ivey
UofSC's public history graduates apply their knowledge and love of history to encourage civic engagement by making the past more understandable and accessible to the general public. They also are helping to refine our understanding of our past through new scholarship to tell a more inclusive history.
September 01, 2021, Craig Brandhorst
Singers, teachers and public speakers can feel the effects of the pandemic, whether or not they contract the virus. Enter clinical professor of communication sciences and disorders and voice therapist Jamy Claire Archer, one of 10 Gamecocks Carolinian magazine spoke to about how the pandemic has changed the way we work.
August 23, 2021, Chris Horn
A research team led by a UofSC psychology professor has found wide disparities among school districts in the percentage of children identified with learning disabilities and also has discovered that many students’ learning disabilities are not being identified until sixth or seventh grade.