Differences in Career Development Among First-Year Students: A Proposed Typology for Intervention Planning
Author(s): Hammond, M. S.
Citation: Hammond, M. S. (2017). Differences in Career Development Among First-Year Students: A Proposed Typology for Intervention Planning. Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 29(2), 45-63.
Most universities provide career development services to their students. Research on the effectiveness of these services in promoting retention and graduation is minimal and focused on global outcomes rather than differences among participants. Research to date suggests that between three and nine clusters (groups) of individuals would benefit from customized career development interventions (Brown & Krane, 2000). This study uses multiple measures to examine and organize the range of career decision-making strengths and challenges of first-year college students. The findings indicate that eight clusters of first-year students with discrete patterns of strengths and challenges can be identified. Moreover, while academic, affective, career, gender, and personality variables significantly distinguished the clusters, age, race/ ethnicity, and socioeconomic status did not. Understanding the range of differences among first-year students will facilitate increased sophistication in program planning and research to enhance student retention and graduation.